22. I40E Poll Mode Driver
The i40e PMD (librte_net_i40e) provides poll mode driver support for 10/25/40 Gbps Intel® Ethernet 700 Series Network Adapters based on the Intel Ethernet Controller X710/XL710/XXV710 and Intel Ethernet Connection X722 (only support part of features).
Features of the i40e PMD are:
Multiple queues for TX and RX
Receiver Side Scaling (RSS)
Packet type information
VLAN/QinQ stripping and inserting
Port hardware statistics
Link state information
Link flow control
Mirror on port, VLAN and VSI
Interrupt mode for RX
Scattered and gather for TX and RX
Vector Poll mode driver
VF Daemon (VFD) - EXPERIMENTAL
Dynamic Device Personalization (DDP)
Queue region configuration
Virtual Function Port Representors
Malicious Device Drive event catch and notify
Generic flow API
22.2. Linux Prerequisites
Identifying your adapter using Intel Support and get the latest NVM/FW images.
Follow the DPDK Getting Started Guide for Linux to setup the basic DPDK environment.
To get better performance on Intel platforms, please follow the “How to get best performance with NICs on Intel platforms” section of the Getting Started Guide for Linux.
Upgrade the NVM/FW version following the Intel® Ethernet NVM Update Tool Quick Usage Guide for Linux and Intel® Ethernet NVM Update Tool: Quick Usage Guide for EFI if needed.
For information about supported media, please refer to this document: Intel® Ethernet Controller X710/XXV710/XL710 Feature Support Matrix.
Some adapters based on the Intel(R) Ethernet Controller 700 Series only support Intel Ethernet Optics modules. On these adapters, other modules are not supported and will not function.
For connections based on Intel(R) Ethernet Controller 700 Series, support is dependent on your system board. Please see your vendor for details.
In all cases Intel recommends using Intel Ethernet Optics; other modules may function but are not validated by Intel. Contact Intel for supported media types.
22.3. Windows Prerequisites
Follow the DPDK Getting Started Guide for Windows to setup the basic DPDK environment.
Identify the Intel® Ethernet adapter and get the latest NVM/FW version.
To access any Intel® Ethernet hardware, load the NetUIO driver in place of existing built-in (inbox) driver.
To load NetUIO driver, follow the steps mentioned in dpdk-kmods repository.
22.4. Recommended Matching List
It is highly recommended to upgrade the i40e kernel driver and firmware to avoid the compatibility issues with i40e PMD. Here is the suggested matching list which has been tested and verified. The detailed information can refer to chapter Tested Platforms/Tested NICs in release notes.
Kernel driver version
Kernel driver version
22.5. Pre-Installation Configuration
22.5.1. Config File Options
The following options can be modified in the
Number of queues reserved for PF.
Number of queues reserved for each VMDQ Pool.
22.5.2. Runtime Config Options
Reserved number of Queues per VF(default
The number of reserved queue per VF is determined by its host PF. If the PCI address of an i40e PF is aaaa:bb.cc, the number of reserved queues per VF can be configured with EAL parameter like -a aaaa:bb.cc,queue-num-per-vf=n. The value n can be 1, 2, 4, 8 or 16. If no such parameter is configured, the number of reserved queues per VF is 4 by default. If VF request more than reserved queues per VF, PF will able to allocate max to 16 queues after a VF reset.
Support multiple driver(default
There was a multiple driver support issue during use of 700 series Ethernet Adapter with both Linux kernel and DPDK PMD. To fix this issue,
support-multi-driveris introduced, for example:
With the above configuration, DPDK PMD will not change global registers, and will switch PF interrupt from IntN to Int0 to avoid interrupt conflict between DPDK and Linux Kernel.
Support VF Port Representor(default
The i40e PF PMD supports the creation of VF port representors for the control and monitoring of i40e virtual function devices. Each port representor corresponds to a single virtual function of that device. Using the
representorthe user can specify which virtual functions to create port representors for on initialization of the PF PMD by passing the VF IDs of the VFs which are required.:
Currently hot-plugging of representor ports is not supported so all required representors must be specified on the creation of the PF.
Enable validation for VF message(default
The PF counts messages from each VF. If in any period of seconds the message statistic from a VF exceeds maximal limitation, the PF will ignore any new message from that VF for some seconds. Format – “maximal-message@period-seconds:ignore-seconds” For example:
22.5.3. Vector RX Pre-conditions
For Vector RX it is assumed that the number of descriptor rings will be a power
of 2. With this pre-condition, the ring pointer can easily scroll back to the
head after hitting the tail without a conditional check. In addition Vector RX
can use this assumption to do a bit mask using
ring_size - 1.
22.6. Driver compilation and testing
Refer to the document compiling and testing a PMD for a NIC for details.
22.7. SR-IOV: Prerequisites and sample Application Notes
Load the kernel module:
Check the output in dmesg:
i40e 0000:83:00.1 ens802f0: renamed from eth0
Bring up the PF ports:
ifconfig ens802f0 up
Create VF device(s):
Echo the number of VFs to be created into the
sriov_numvfssysfs entry of the parent PF.
echo 2 > /sys/devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:03.0/0000:81:00.0/sriov_numvfs
Assign VF MAC address:
Assign MAC address to the VF using iproute2 utility. The syntax is:
ip link set <PF netdev id> vf <VF id> mac <macaddr>
ip link set ens802f0 vf 0 mac a0:b0:c0:d0:e0:f0
Assign VF to VM, and bring up the VM. Please see the documentation for the I40E/IXGBE/IGB Virtual Function Driver.
Follow instructions available in the document compiling and testing a PMD for a NIC to run testpmd.
... EAL: PCI device 0000:83:00.0 on NUMA socket 1 EAL: probe driver: 8086:1572 rte_i40e_pmd EAL: PCI memory mapped at 0x7f7f80000000 EAL: PCI memory mapped at 0x7f7f80800000 PMD: eth_i40e_dev_init(): FW 5.0 API 1.5 NVM 05.00.02 eetrack 8000208a Interactive-mode selected Configuring Port 0 (socket 0) ... PMD: i40e_dev_rx_queue_setup(): Rx Burst Bulk Alloc Preconditions are satisfied.Rx Burst Bulk Alloc function will be used on port=0, queue=0. ... Port 0: 68:05:CA:26:85:84 Checking link statuses... Port 0 Link Up - speed 10000 Mbps - full-duplex Done testpmd>
22.8. Sample Application Notes
22.8.1. Vlan filter
Vlan filter only works when Promiscuous mode is off.
testpmd, and add vlan 10 to port 0:
./<build_dir>/app/dpdk-testpmd -l 0-15 -n 4 -- -i --forward-mode=mac ... testpmd> set promisc 0 off testpmd> rx_vlan add 10 0
22.8.2. Flow Director
The Flow Director works in receive mode to identify specific flows or sets of flows and route them to specific queues. The Flow Director filters can match the different fields for different type of packet: flow type, specific input set per flow type and the flexible payload.
The default input set of each flow type is:
ipv4-other : src_ip_address, dst_ip_address ipv4-frag : src_ip_address, dst_ip_address ipv4-tcp : src_ip_address, dst_ip_address, src_port, dst_port ipv4-udp : src_ip_address, dst_ip_address, src_port, dst_port ipv4-sctp : src_ip_address, dst_ip_address, src_port, dst_port, verification_tag ipv6-other : src_ip_address, dst_ip_address ipv6-frag : src_ip_address, dst_ip_address ipv6-tcp : src_ip_address, dst_ip_address, src_port, dst_port ipv6-udp : src_ip_address, dst_ip_address, src_port, dst_port ipv6-sctp : src_ip_address, dst_ip_address, src_port, dst_port, verification_tag l2_payload : ether_type
The flex payload is selected from offset 0 to 15 of packet’s payload by default, while it is masked out from matching.
./<build_dir>/app/dpdk-testpmd -l 0-15 -n 4 -- -i --disable-rss \ --pkt-filter-mode=perfect --rxq=8 --txq=8 --nb-cores=8 \ --nb-ports=1
Add a rule to direct
ipv4-udp packet whose
dst_ip=126.96.36.199, src_ip=188.8.131.52, src_port=32, dst_port=32 to queue 1:
testpmd> flow create 0 ingress pattern eth / ipv4 src is 184.108.40.206 \ dst is 220.127.116.11 / udp src is 32 dst is 32 / end \ actions mark id 1 / queue index 1 / end
Check the flow director status:
testpmd> show port fdir 0 ######################## FDIR infos for port 0 #################### MODE: PERFECT SUPPORTED FLOW TYPE: ipv4-frag ipv4-tcp ipv4-udp ipv4-sctp ipv4-other ipv6-frag ipv6-tcp ipv6-udp ipv6-sctp ipv6-other l2_payload FLEX PAYLOAD INFO: max_len: 16 payload_limit: 480 payload_unit: 2 payload_seg: 3 bitmask_unit: 2 bitmask_num: 2 MASK: vlan_tci: 0x0000, src_ipv4: 0x00000000, dst_ipv4: 0x00000000, src_port: 0x0000, dst_port: 0x0000 src_ipv6: 0x00000000,0x00000000,0x00000000,0x00000000, dst_ipv6: 0x00000000,0x00000000,0x00000000,0x00000000 FLEX PAYLOAD SRC OFFSET: L2_PAYLOAD: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 ... L3_PAYLOAD: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 ... L4_PAYLOAD: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 ... FLEX MASK CFG: ipv4-udp: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 ipv4-tcp: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 ipv4-sctp: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 ipv4-other: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 ipv4-frag: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 ipv6-udp: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 ipv6-tcp: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 ipv6-sctp: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 ipv6-other: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 ipv6-frag: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 l2_payload: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 guarant_count: 1 best_count: 0 guarant_space: 512 best_space: 7168 collision: 0 free: 0 maxhash: 0 maxlen: 0 add: 0 remove: 0 f_add: 0 f_remove: 0
22.8.3. Floating VEB
The Intel® Ethernet 700 Series support a feature called “Floating VEB”.
A Virtual Ethernet Bridge (VEB) is an IEEE Edge Virtual Bridging (EVB) term for functionality that allows local switching between virtual endpoints within a physical endpoint and also with an external bridge/network.
A “Floating” VEB doesn’t have an uplink connection to the outside world so all switching is done internally and remains within the host. As such, this feature provides security benefits.
In addition, a Floating VEB overcomes a limitation of normal VEBs where they cannot forward packets when the physical link is down. Floating VEBs don’t need to connect to the NIC port so they can still forward traffic from VF to VF even when the physical link is down.
Therefore, with this feature enabled VFs can be limited to communicating with each other but not an outside network, and they can do so even when there is no physical uplink on the associated NIC port.
To enable this feature, the user should pass a
devargs parameter to the
EAL, for example:
In this configuration the PMD will use the floating VEB feature for all the VFs created by this PF device.
Alternatively, the user can specify which VFs need to connect to this floating
VEB using the
In this example
VF4 connect to the floating VEB,
while other VFs connect to the normal VEB.
The current implementation only supports one floating VEB and one regular VEB. VFs can connect to a floating VEB or a regular VEB according to the configuration passed on the EAL command line.
The floating VEB functionality requires a NIC firmware version of 5.0 or greater.
22.8.4. Dynamic Device Personalization (DDP)
The Intel® Ethernet 700 Series except for the Intel Ethernet Connection X722 support a feature called “Dynamic Device Personalization (DDP)”, which is used to configure hardware by downloading a profile to support protocols/filters which are not supported by default. The DDP functionality requires a NIC firmware version of 6.0 or greater.
Current implementation supports GTP-C/GTP-U/PPPoE/PPPoL2TP/ESP, steering can be used with rte_flow API.
GTPv1 package is released, and it can be downloaded from https://downloadcenter.intel.com/download/27587.
PPPoE package is released, and it can be downloaded from https://downloadcenter.intel.com/download/28040.
ESP-AH package is released, and it can be downloaded from https://downloadcenter.intel.com/download/29446.
Load a profile which supports GTP and store backup profile:
testpmd> ddp add 0 ./gtp.pkgo,./backup.pkgo
Delete a GTP profile and restore backup profile:
testpmd> ddp del 0 ./backup.pkgo
Get loaded DDP package info list:
testpmd> ddp get list 0
Display information about a GTP profile:
testpmd> ddp get info ./gtp.pkgo
22.8.5. Input set configuration
Input set for any PCTYPE can be configured with user defined configuration, For example, to use only 48bit prefix for IPv6 src address for IPv6 TCP RSS:
testpmd> port config 0 pctype 43 hash_inset clear all testpmd> port config 0 pctype 43 hash_inset set field 13 testpmd> port config 0 pctype 43 hash_inset set field 14 testpmd> port config 0 pctype 43 hash_inset set field 15
22.8.6. Queue region configuration
The Intel® Ethernet 700 Series supports a feature of queue regions
configuration for RSS in the PF, so that different traffic classes or
different packet classification types can be separated to different
queues in different queue regions. There is an API for configuration
of queue regions in RSS with a command line. It can parse the parameters
of the region index, queue number, queue start index, user priority, traffic
classes and so on. Depending on commands from the command line, it will call
i40e private APIs and start the process of setting or flushing the queue
region configuration. As this feature is specific for i40e only private
APIs are used. These new
test_pmd commands are as shown below. For
details please refer to Testpmd Application User Guide.
testpmd> set port (port_id) queue-region region_id (value) \ queue_start_index (value) queue_num (value) testpmd> set port (port_id) queue-region region_id (value) flowtype (value) testpmd> set port (port_id) queue-region UP (value) region_id (value) testpmd> set port (port_id) queue-region flush (on|off) testpmd> show port (port_id) queue-region
22.8.7. Generic flow API
RSS Flow supports to set hash input set, hash function, enable hash and configure queues. For example: Configure queues as queue 0, 1, 2, 3.
testpmd> flow create 0 ingress pattern end actions rss types end \ queues 0 1 2 3 end / end
Enable hash and set input set for ipv4-tcp.
testpmd> flow create 0 ingress pattern eth / ipv4 / tcp / end \ actions rss types ipv4-tcp l3-src-only end queues end / end
Set symmetric hash enable for flow type ipv4-tcp.
testpmd> flow create 0 ingress pattern eth / ipv4 / tcp / end \ actions rss types ipv4-tcp end queues end func symmetric_toeplitz / end
Set hash function as simple xor.
testpmd> flow create 0 ingress pattern end actions rss types end \ queues end func simple_xor / end
22.9. Limitations or Known issues
22.9.1. MPLS packet classification
For firmware versions prior to 5.0, MPLS packets are not recognized by the NIC. The L2 Payload flow type in flow director can be used to classify MPLS packet by using a command in testpmd like:
- testpmd> flow_director_filter 0 mode IP add flow l2_payload ether
0x8847 flexbytes () fwd pf queue <N> fd_id <M>
With the NIC firmware version 5.0 or greater, some limited MPLS support is added: Native MPLS (MPLS in Ethernet) skip is implemented, while no new packet type, no classification or offload are possible. With this change, L2 Payload flow type in flow director cannot be used to classify MPLS packet as with previous firmware versions. Meanwhile, the Ethertype filter can be used to classify MPLS packet by using a command in testpmd like:
- testpmd> flow create 0 ingress pattern eth type is 0x8847 / end
actions queue index <M> / end
22.9.2. 16 Byte RX Descriptor setting on DPDK VF
Currently the VF’s RX descriptor mode is decided by PF. There’s no PF-VF interface for VF to request the RX descriptor mode, also no interface to notify VF its own RX descriptor mode. For all available versions of the i40e driver, these drivers don’t support 16 byte RX descriptor. If the Linux i40e kernel driver is used as host driver, while DPDK i40e PMD is used as the VF driver, DPDK cannot choose 16 byte receive descriptor. The reason is that the RX descriptor is already set to 32 byte by the i40e kernel driver. In the future, if the Linux i40e driver supports 16 byte RX descriptor, user should make sure the DPDK VF uses the same RX descriptor mode, 16 byte or 32 byte, as the PF driver.
The same rule for DPDK PF + DPDK VF. The PF and VF should use the same RX descriptor mode. Or the VF RX will not work.
22.9.3. Receive packets with Ethertype 0x88A8
Due to the FW limitation, PF can receive packets with Ethertype 0x88A8 only when floating VEB is disabled.
22.9.4. Incorrect Rx statistics when packet is oversize
When a packet is over maximum frame size, the packet is dropped. However, the Rx statistics, when calling rte_eth_stats_get incorrectly shows it as received.
22.9.5. RX/TX statistics may be incorrect when register overflowed
The rx_bytes/tx_bytes statistics register is 48 bit length. Although this limitation is enlarged to 64 bit length on the software side, but there is no way to detect if the overflow occurred more than once. So rx_bytes/tx_bytes statistics data is correct when statistics are updated at least once between two overflows.
22.9.6. VF & TC max bandwidth setting
The per VF max bandwidth and per TC max bandwidth cannot be enabled in parallel. The behavior is different when handling per VF and per TC max bandwidth setting. When enabling per VF max bandwidth, SW will check if per TC max bandwidth is enabled. If so, return failure. When enabling per TC max bandwidth, SW will check if per VF max bandwidth is enabled. If so, disable per VF max bandwidth and continue with per TC max bandwidth setting.
22.9.7. TC TX scheduling mode setting
There are 2 TX scheduling modes for TCs, round robin and strict priority mode. If a TC is set to strict priority mode, it can consume unlimited bandwidth. It means if APP has set the max bandwidth for that TC, it comes to no effect. It’s suggested to set the strict priority mode for a TC that is latency sensitive but no consuming much bandwidth.
22.9.8. VF performance is impacted by PCI extended tag setting
To reach maximum NIC performance in the VF the PCI extended tag must be enabled. The DPDK i40e PF driver will set this feature during initialization, but the kernel PF driver does not. So when running traffic on a VF which is managed by the kernel PF driver, a significant NIC performance downgrade has been observed (for 64 byte packets, there is about 25% line-rate downgrade for a 25GbE device and about 35% for a 40GbE device).
For kernel version >= 4.11, the kernel’s PCI driver will enable the extended tag if it detects that the device supports it. So by default, this is not an issue. For kernels <= 4.11 or when the PCI extended tag is disabled it can be enabled using the steps below.
Get the current value of the PCI configure register:
setpci -s <XX:XX.X> a8.w
Set bit 8:
value = value | 0x100
Set the PCI configure register with new value:
setpci -s <XX:XX.X> a8.w=<value>
22.9.9. Vlan strip of VF
The VF vlan strip function is only supported in the i40e kernel driver >= 2.1.26.
22.9.10. DCB function
DCB works only when RSS is enabled.
22.9.11. Global configuration warning
I40E PMD will set some global registers to enable some function or set some configure. Then when using different ports of the same NIC with Linux kernel and DPDK, the port with Linux kernel will be impacted by the port with DPDK. For example, register I40E_GL_SWT_L2TAGCTRL is used to control L2 tag, i40e PMD uses I40E_GL_SWT_L2TAGCTRL to set vlan TPID. If setting TPID in port A with DPDK, then the configuration will also impact port B in the NIC with kernel driver, which don’t want to use the TPID. So PMD reports warning to clarify what is changed by writing global register.
22.9.12. Cloud Filter
When programming cloud filters for IPv4/6_UDP/TCP/SCTP with SRC port only or DST port only, it will make any cloud filter using inner_vlan or tunnel key invalid. Default configuration will be recovered only by NIC core reset.
22.9.13. Mirror rule limitation for X722
Due to firmware restriction of X722, the same VSI cannot have more than one mirror rule.
22.10. High Performance of Small Packets on 40GbE NIC
As there might be firmware fixes for performance enhancement in latest version of firmware image, the firmware update might be needed for getting high performance. Check the Intel support website for the latest firmware updates. Users should consult the release notes specific to a DPDK release to identify the validated firmware version for a NIC using the i40e driver.
22.10.1. Use 16 Bytes RX Descriptor Size
As i40e PMD supports both 16 and 32 bytes RX descriptor sizes, and 16 bytes size can provide helps to high performance of small packets.
config/rte_config.h set the following to use 16 bytes size RX descriptors:
#define RTE_LIBRTE_I40E_16BYTE_RX_DESC 1
22.10.2. Input set requirement of each pctype for FDIR
Each PCTYPE can only have one specific FDIR input set at one time. For example, if creating 2 rte_flow rules with different input set for one PCTYPE, it will fail and return the info “Conflict with the first rule’s input set”, which means the current rule’s input set conflicts with the first rule’s. Remove the first rule if want to change the input set of the PCTYPE.
22.11. Example of getting best performance with l3fwd example
The following is an example of running the DPDK
l3fwd sample application to get high performance with a
server with Intel Xeon processors and Intel Ethernet CNA XL710.
The example scenario is to get best performance with two Intel Ethernet CNA XL710 40GbE ports. See Fig. 22.8 for the performance test setup.
Add two Intel Ethernet CNA XL710 to the platform, and use one port per card to get best performance. The reason for using two NICs is to overcome a PCIe v3.0 limitation since it cannot provide 80GbE bandwidth for two 40GbE ports, but two different PCIe v3.0 x8 slot can. Refer to the sample NICs output above, then we can select
85:00.0as test ports:
82:00.0 Ethernet : Intel XL710 for 40GbE QSFP+ [8086:1583] 85:00.0 Ethernet : Intel XL710 for 40GbE QSFP+ [8086:1583]
Connect the ports to the traffic generator. For high speed testing, it’s best to use a hardware traffic generator.
Check the PCI devices numa node (socket id) and get the cores number on the exact socket id. In this case,
85:00.0are both in socket 1, and the cores on socket 1 in the referenced platform are 18-35 and 54-71. Note: Don’t use 2 logical cores on the same core (e.g core18 has 2 logical cores, core18 and core54), instead, use 2 logical cores from different cores (e.g core18 and core19).
Bind these two ports to igb_uio.
As to Intel Ethernet CNA XL710 40GbE port, we need at least two queue pairs to achieve best performance, then two queues per port will be required, and each queue pair will need a dedicated CPU core for receiving/transmitting packets.
The DPDK sample application
l3fwdwill be used for performance testing, with using two ports for bi-directional forwarding. Compile the
l3fwd samplewith the default lpm mode.
The command line of running l3fwd would be something like the following:
./dpdk-l3fwd -l 18-21 -n 4 -a 82:00.0 -a 85:00.0 \ -- -p 0x3 --config '(0,0,18),(0,1,19),(1,0,20),(1,1,21)'
This means that the application uses core 18 for port 0, queue pair 0 forwarding, core 19 for port 0, queue pair 1 forwarding, core 20 for port 1, queue pair 0 forwarding, and core 21 for port 1, queue pair 1 forwarding.
Configure the traffic at a traffic generator.
Start creating a stream on packet generator.
Set the Ethernet II type to 0x0800.